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The atomic power plants and nuclear reactors of various types, which have been built and are being built, may differ considerably from one another. Power generated by atomic stations may be cheaper than that generated by stations burning oil or coal from the Donbas, if only we pay attention to the problem of reliability and safety as regards people and environment. Otherwise, as the Chornobyl catastrophe shows, the nuclear energy may be too expensive. Atomic power stations are ecologically cleaner than the traditional fuel-burning stations, if technical and technological requirements are strictly observed. The successful development of atomic power engineering is a key factor in further raising power production. The prospects of atomic power generation become virtually unlimited with the creation of thermonuclear power stations, fast-breeder reactors and direct transformation of atomic power into electricity. However, after the Chornobyl catastrophe it became necessary to reconsider and reduce the programmes of the development of atomic power engineering in Ukraine. Vocabulary notes 1. is accounted for – пояснюється 2. fast-breeder reactor – ядерний реактор-розмножувач Завдання 2. Надайте відповіді на запитання до тексту.
INDUSTRIES IN GREAT BRITAIN Great Britain is a powerful industrial country. It has highly developed heavy industry and shipbuilding. It builds ships and manufactures machinery, chemicals and electronics. Great Britain accumulated great, wealth from the plunder of its colonies and dependencies. Having large deposits of coal and iron ore and using mechanical improvements and inventions, Great Britain outstripped all the other European countries at the beginning of the 19th century. Great Britain was the first to use power driven machinery, the first to have large factories and plants. It is a great producer of coal and steel now too. The industries are concentrated mainly in the central part of the country. Such industrial cities as Birmingham, Liverpool, Sheffield, Manchester, Glasgow, Leeds are known all over the world. Birmingham is the largest manufacturing centre in this district and the second largest city in Great Britain. It is famous for its high-quality steel, metalware and machinery, automobile, aircraft and electro-technical equipment. Railway cars, motor cars, scientific instruments, heavy armaments, weaving looms are also produced in Great Britain. One of the leading industries is the textile industry. The main centres of the textile industry are Liverpool and Manchester. Besides Liverpool is a large seaport. Imports passing through Liverpool consist of cotton, wool, non-ferrous metals and oil; exports consist of fabrics, yarn, textile machinery, electrical equipment and chemicals. Great Britain exports also motor-cars, aircraft and other machines, as well as electro-technical apparatus. Stafford and Warwick abound in collieries, iron-foundries and potteries. The manufacture of china and pottery is mainly concentrated in Staffordshire where


accounts for the priority given to the accelerated development of electricity all over the world. For quite a long time man has been using wind, water and other conventional sources for producing electric power. Beginning with the taming of the fire man has been continually looking for new sources of energy. First, there was firewood; then came coal. In the 20th century oil and natural gas began to be used on a large scale. Now man has discovered a source of heat and light millions of times more effective: one gram of nuclear fuel is equivalent to several tons of coal or oil. World reserves of nuclear fuel (including lean ores) exceed manifold the reserves of mineral fuels. Therefore we often say that our time is the beginning of the age of atomic power. Today the application of atomic power to generate electricity is becoming increasingly broader. It is the greatest potential capable of meeting mankind’s growing requirements in electricity. Natural fuels like coal, gas, oil are being drained rapidly. Nuclear and later, thermonuclear energy will be decisive in energy supply. That’s why the problem of using atomic power for production of electricity is of great interest, and scientists in different countries give much attention to it. The world’s first experimental atomic power station was put into operation in 1954. Its capacity was nothing extraordinary (five thousand kilowatts), but it started a new stage in the peaceful use of atomic power. With time going on, specialists’ experience is growing and reactors are becoming more specialized, bigger and more efficient.
cups and saucers, plates and dishes, and other articles are made of clay or other earthy materials. Paper is manufactured on a considerable scale in Ireland. The capital of England, London, is also a city with highly developed engineering industries. Great Britain is largely dependent on foreign trade. At the beginning of the 20th century competition with other countries became greater, and Great Britain lost its economic domination. STANDARDIZATION — AN IMPORTANT STATE TASK Acceleration of scientific and technical progress is closely linked with raising the technical level and quality of the machines produced (tractors, cars, machine-tools, TV-sets, refrigerators, etc.). Their production requires numerous units, components, reliability and durability of the final product. With the demand of constant improvement of the technical level and quality of production, standards have become one of the most important state tasks. Improvement of standards has assumed a special importance. Therefore, parameters must be determined that would dictate the need for the whole of industry to produce only high-quality commodities. It is obviously necessary to single out five or six leading standards for the principal machines and mechanisms, for the final product, which, reaching the highest technical level, would enable us at the same time to raise the quality of other products too. Now, what standards are the leading ones? In the first place, those that reflect the output of a certain type of mechanisms. Second, material consumption. The third group of standards points to the limits of energy consumption. The fourth group has to do with reliability. Finally, the fifth group of standards is oriented, on the


4. calorie d. a device that measures and also controls temperature.
5. mass e. little weight; not heavy.
6. boiler f. a unit of the amount of heat or energy;
7.furnace g. a large number of; a great deal of.

UNIT 10

Завдання 1. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст.

SOURCES OF POWER ENGINEERING TODAY

Power in its perfect form – electric power – determines the pace of the technological advance of mankind.

The numerous machines, mechanisms and automatic devices functioning in industry, agriculture, transport and everyday life depend upon power production. In the twentieth century, mankind’s progress depends not only on electricity output, but also on the efficiency of application of electricity all spheres of the national economy.

The extensive consumption of electricity and its key role in developing the productive forces is accounted for by its high efficiency and huge advantages over other types of energy. It is the cleanest, most universal and efficient. Electricity can be transmitted over long distances. It is easily distributed among numerous consumers, or on the contrary, can be concentrated into gigantic capacities. Electricity has a revolutionizing affect on machinery and technology in all spheres of economy. This
whole, towards attaining the specified economic efficiency of the product. In connection with standards it should be stressed that the machines must be designed according to the standards which will be characteristic of the future, not only the present, development of the given industry. The chief task of our industry is to ensure production of machines, equipment, tools and materials conforming to the highest world standards, and substantially boost labour productivity in all branches of the national economy. To solve this task, it is necessary to work out fundamentally new kinds of mechanisms and technology, to retool production continually and on a broad scale, to implement its all-round mechanization and automation, to raise the level and effectiveness of research and standards. IN COOPERATION WITH NATURE The activities of man today match the forces of nature. V. I. Vernadsky wrote: "Mankind taken as a whole is becoming a powerful geological force. And the question arising before it, before its intellect and labour, is one of rebuilding the biosphere in the interest of humanity as a freely-thinking race". Volodymyr Ivanovych Vernadsky (1863-1945), academician, an outstanding Ukrainian scientist, naturalist was the founder of geochemistry, biochemistry and radiogeology. It was largely due to his ideas that the concept of man's absolute domination of nature gave way to that of relations between equal partners. It was still in the 1950s that teachers in natural science lectured on the conquering of nature. Acad. Vernadsky taught that nature is not to be conquered, but rather cherished and cooperated with. V. I. Vernadsky was born in St. Petersburg in the family of Prof. I. V. Vernadsky who was a relative of


7. Science isn’t capable of coping with such problems as to obtain cheap hydrogen from water. Завдання 7. Виберіть правильний варіант закінчення поданих речень
1. Hydrogen is practically non-existent a. can be explained by the structure of the atom.
2. Reliability of every vehicle should be paid great attention to b. obtaining hydrogen from gas.
3. Scientists have developed a highly-effective method of c. they did not heat up as much.
4. The climate in this part of the world d. in the pure forms on Earth
5. The chemical properties of different elements e. during the production process.
6. The engines on hydrogen worked more efficiently and f. is the most suitable for people to live in

Завдання 8.Оберіть правильне тлумачення до кожного словa.

1.thermostat a. turned into ice
2. light b. container in which water is heated to make steam
3. frozen c. a structure in which heat is generated such as for heating houses, melting metal
the well-known writer V. G. Korolenko. In 1885 he graduated from St. Petersburg University. In the years 1898-1911 he was professor of mineralogy and crystallography at Moscow University. In this period he studied the deposits of iron ores in Kryvyi Rih and later (in 1915) — the natural productive resources of Russia and Ukraine. After 1917 V. I. Vernadsky became one of the most active organizers of science. With a group of scientists he organized the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences which was established in 1919. He became its first President. The Academy included sections of historical and philological, physical and mathematical, social and economic sciences. He was one of the main founders of the State Public Library in Kiev. On Vernadsky's initiative and with his most active participation important scientific institutions were organized: the State Radium Institute (1922), the Commission on the History of Knowledge (1926), the Section of Living Matter (1927) later transformed into the Biogeochemical Laboratory, and others. Acad. Vernadsky enriched our science with profound ideas in modern mineralogy, geology, hydrogeology, etc. His works laid the basis for the theory of the feasibility of man's transforming the biosphere into a "noosphere", a sphere of reason (from Greek "noos" — "reason") — a science dealing v with the interaction between nature and man. The noosphere involves a balanced relationship between man and the environment, the absence of pollution, the use of natural resources in ways harmless to nature, and the scientific management of ecosystems. Vernadsky stressed that the development of the noosphere is the common and only intelligent way for the Earth dwellers to face their future. The talented scientist gave much energy and attention to training scientists. He was Academician of


словосполучення англійською мовою. 1. на відміну від – 2. виділяти - 3. вугілля - 4. вартий,корисний - 5. рідкий стан - 6. сучасна технологія - 7. обширні випробування - 8. двигун - 9. досягати - 10. справлятись з чим-небудь - Завдання 5.Складіть речення з запропонованих слів. 1. 1.from, be obtained, water, can, also, hydrogen. 2. liquid, by, harsh, hydrogen, isn’t affected, frost. 3. in, aviation, hydrogen, is used, a fuel, as. 4. it, non-existent, on Earth, is, practically, in, forms, its pure. 5. scientists, method, technological, of, hydrogen, gas, a highly-effective, have developed, from, obtaining. Завдання 6.Визначте які з поданих тверджень правдиві: «Так» + «Ні» - 1. 1.Gasoline contains two times as many thermal calories as the same amount of hydrogen. 2. The engines heated up because they worked on hydrogen. 3. Liquid hydrogen is not affected by harsh frost. 4. A lot of devices, now operating on oil products and natural gas can be adapted to hydrogen fuel. 5. After gas reaches the burners in the boilers all valuable components are extracted from hydrogen. 6. To obtain hydrogen from water is possible. For this water has to be split.
the Russian Academy of Sciences since 1909 and the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine since 1919. He was elected an Honorary Member of the Czechoslovak and Paris Academies of Sciences, many home and foreign scientific societies. The scientist's merits were highly appreciated by his descendants. The year 1972saw the establishment of the V. I. Vernadsky Prize of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, a boulevard in Kiev was named after him in 1973 where a monument to the great scientist was erected in 1981. Now the Central Scientific Library in Kiev bears the name of V. I. Vernadsky. COMPUTER GRAPHICS Computer graphics are known to be pictures and drawings produced by computers. A graphics program interprets the input provided by the user and transports it into images that can be displayed on the screen, printed on paper or transferred to microfilm. In the process the computer uses hundreds of mathematical formulas to convert the bits of data into precise shapes and colours. Graphics can be developed for a variety of uses including illustrations, architectural designs and detailed engineering drawings. Mechanical engineering uses sophisticated programs for applications in computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). In the car industry CAD software is used to develop, model and test car designs before the actual parts are made. This can save a lot of time and money. Basically, computer graphics help users to understand complex information quickly by presenting it in more understandable and clearer visual forms. Electric engineers use computer graphics for designing circuits and in business it is possible to present


Vocabulary notes 1. burner – форсунка 2. to adapt – пристосовуватися 3. two-fold – подвійний 4. to cope with – справлятися (з чим-небудь) Завдання 2.Надайте відповіді на запитання до тексту. 1. Why do the scientists call hydrogen the fuel of the future? 2. What technological method have the scientists developed? 3. What valuable components are extracted from gas? 4. Is hydrogen used as a fuel in aviation? 5. What advantages can hydrogen offer? 6. How will hydrogen be obtained? 7. Is it economically worthwhile to process hydrogen? 8. Will it be possible to obtain cheap, commercially profitable hydrogen from water? Завдання 3.Перекладіть наведені слова та словосполучення українською мовою. 1. 1.Firewood - 2. Valuable components – 3. Carbon black – 4. To obtain – 5. Petrochemical industry – 6. Vehicle – 7. Harsh frost – 8. Promising – 9. High-heating power – 10. Decomposition - Завдання 4. Перекладіть наведені слова та
information as graphics and diagrams. These are certain to be much more effective ways of communicating than lists of figures or long explanations. Today, three-dimensional graphics along with colour and computer animation are supposed to be essential for graphic design, computer-aided engineering (CAE) and academic research. Computer animation is the process of creating objects and pictures which move across the screen; it is used by scientists and engineers to analyze problems. With appropriate software they can study the structure of objects and how it is affected by particular changes. A graphic package is the software that enables the user to draw and manipulate objects on a computer. Each graphic package has its own facilities, as well as a wide range of basic drawing and painting tools. The collection of tools in a package is known as a palette. The basic geometric shapes, such as lines between two points, arcs, circles, polygons, ellipses and even text, making graphical objects are called «primitives». You can choose both the primitive you want and where it should go on the screen. Moreover, you can specify the «attributes» of each primitive, e.g., its colour, line type and so on. The various tools in a palette usually appear together as pop-up icons in a menu. To use one you can activate it by clicking on it. After specifying the primitives and their attributes you must transform them. Transformation means moving or manipulating the object by translating, rotating and scaling the object. Translation is moving an object along an axis to somewhere else in the viewing area. Rotation is turning the object larger or smaller in any of the horizontal, vertical or depth direction (corresponding to the x, y and z axis). The term «rendering»


ecologically clean fuel. But unlike the conventional fuels-firewood, coal, oil and natural gas it is practically non-existent in its pure forms on Earth. Scientists have developed a highly-effective technological method of obtaining hydrogen from gas. Before gas reaches the burners in the boilers of power stations, valuable components such as acetylene, carbon black, graphit and hydrogen are extracted from it. Hydrogen can also be obtained from water. For this water has to be split. Hydrogen can very effectively he used as a fuel by power stations. It is widely used in the petrochemical and metallurgical industries. Extensive tests have been made with motor vehicles using hydrogen as fuel. The engines worked perfectly, more efficiently than on petrol, and they did not heat up as much. Drivers in the Arctic were very enthusiastic, because liquid hydrogen is not affected by harsh frost, and so engines start easily. Hydrogen also seems very promising as a fuel in aviation. All the engines furnaces, heating systems, as well as a mass of other devices, now operating on oil, oil products, natural gas or coal can be adapted to hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen as a source of energy is becoming increasingly important. It offers advantages not only in terms of ecological cleanliness and high-heating power, but also in terms of ease of transportation. Even if hydrogen were the only component extracted from natural gas, it would still be economically worthwhile to process gas. The advantages are twofold economic and environmental. Experts say that in the 21st century hydrogen will be obtained by thermochemical decomposition of water. At present, here there are such problems as how to obtain cheap, commercially profitable hydrogen from water, or how to store hydrogen in a frozen, i. e. liquid state. But present-day technology, and even more so, the technology of the future, are capable of coping with these problems.
describes the techniques used to make your object look real. Rendering includes hidden surface removal, light sources and reflections. HARNESSING (ОБУЗДАНИЕ ) THE SPEED OF LIGHT When American engineer Alan Huang revealed his plans to build an optical computer, most scientists considered this idea as hopeless. It was impractical, if not possible, they said, to create a general-purpose computer that could use pulses of light rather than electrical signals to process data. During one of the scientist's lectures on the subject, a third of the audience walked out. At another one, some of the scientists laughed, calling the researcher a dreamer. That was several years ago. Now the scientist demonstrated his experimental computing machine based on optics. It took him five years to develop it. TV. device — a collection of lasers, lenses and prisms — can serve as the basis for future optical computers 100 to 1,000 times as powerful as today's most advanced supercomputers. The potential applications are remarkable: robots that can see, computers that can design aircraft, processors that can convert spoken words into written text and vice versa. Such practical optical computers are still years away — some would say light-years. Yet many scientists are predicting that the device will have an impact similar to that of the integrated circuit which made small


200 million of carbon monoxide, more than 50 million tons of diverse hydrocarbons, over 120 million tons of ash and nearly 150 million tons of sulphur dioxide. They fall back upon the Earth in the form of ‘’acid rain’’. Expansion of man’s activities in outer space and mastering nuclear energy make the relationship between man and nature still more complicated. In the view of this, nature and environment protection is one of the major ecological problems. Today, it is clear that economic, social, technological and biological processes are closely interrelated. We must consider modern production as a complicated ecological-economical system. Only a strictly scientific approach to the industrial-technological development can solve ecological problems. Nature and environment protection is one of the major functions of the state. Today, more and more people in various countries begin to understand that countries both far and near one another are ecologically interdependent. Therefore all nations must cooperate in solving global problems of ecology. II Семестр UNIT 9 Завдання 1. Прочитайте та перекладiть текст. HYDROGEN AS A SOURCE OF ENERGY Many scientists call hydrogen the fuel of the future. It is the lightest of all gases arid contains two times as many thermal calories as the same amount of gasoline. It is an excellent,
personal computers possible. Photons, the basic unit of light beams, can in theory be much better than electrons for moving signals through a computer. First of all, photons can travel about the times as fast as electrons. And while electrons react with one another, Harris of photons, which have no mass or charge, can cross through one another without interference. Thus, photons can move in free space. This could open the door to radically new and different computer designs, including so-called parallel processors that could work on more than one problem at a time instead of one after another, as today's new generation computers do. THE INTERNET The Internet is a magnificent global network with millions and millions of computers and people connected to one another where each day people worldwide exchange an immeasurable amount of information, electronic mail, news, resources and, more important, ideas. It has grown at a surprising rate. Almost everyone has heard about it and an increasing number of people use it regularly. The current estimate is that over 70 million people are connected, in some way, to the Internet — whether they know it or not. With a few touches at a keyboard a person can get access to materials in almost everywhere. One can have access to full-text newspapers, magazines, journals, reference works, and even books. The Web is one of the best resources for up-to-date information. It is a hypertext-based system by which you can navigate through the Internet. Hypertext is the text that contains links to other


of the subject. Learning foreign languages enriches the native language, makes it clearer, more flexible and expressive. ECONOMIC-TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECOLOGY PROBLEM For millennia man had to struggle against nature in order to survive and develop. For many thousands of years man remained weak while nature was omnipotent. However, as economy developed, the scientific and technological revolution increased, the correlation of forces between man and nature changed. Man gradually grew so strong that he dared to declare himself the ‘’king of nature’’ and contemplated conquering and remolding nature to his liking. In his conquer of nature man became so great that his economic achievements began to have an increasingly negative effect on nature, on the biosphere. Roads and factory construction and industrial development take away to seven million hectares of land every year. Forest disappears at a rate of some 20 hectares a minute. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Resources, 76 animal species and several hundred plant species of the Earth became extinct in the last 60 years alone. Today, animal and plants perish not so much due to hunting, fishing or open-cast mining, as due to the production of chemical and other industrial pollutions, poisoning the biosphere. Each year the world economy ejects into the atmosphere over
documents. A special program Known as «browser» can help you find news, pictures, virtual museums, electronic magazines, etc. and print Web pages. You can also click on keywords or buttons that take you to other pages or other Web sites. This is possible because browsers understand hypertext markup language or code, a set of commands to indicate how a Web page is formatted and displayed. Internet Video conferencing programs enable users to talk to and see each other, exchange textual and graphical information, and collaborate. Internet TV sets allow you to surf the Web and have e-mail while you are watching TV, or vice versa. Imagine watching a film on TV and simultaneously accessing a Web site where you get information on the actors of the film. The next generation of Internet-enabled televisions will incorporate a smart-card for home shopping, banking and other interactive services. Internet -enabled TV means a TV set used as an Internet device. The Internet is a good example of a wide area network (WAN). For long-distance or worldwide communications, computers are usually connected into a wide area network to form a single integrated network. Networks can be linked together by telephone lines or fibre-optic cables. Modern telecommunication systems use fibre-optic cables because the/offer considerable advantages. The cables require little physical space, they are safe as they don't carry electricity, and they avoid electromagnetic interference. Networks on different continents can also be connected via satellites. Computers are connected by means of a modem to ordinary telephone lines or fibre-optic cables, which are linked to a


dish aerial. Communication satellites receive and send signals on a transcontinental scale. LANGUAGE IN THE LIFE OF MAN AND HUMAN SOCIETY Human language is the most astonishing creation of man. It helps us to think, to express our thoughts and to understand each other. We make use of it in practically everything we do. Language is a means of communication in human society. People can use other means of communication, such as red lights or flags, but these signs are interpreted into human language. So language is the normal form and the main means of communication in human society. We cannot say anything definite about the origin of language. But we realize now that language is a product of human society and it can exist only in human society. Man (‘’homo sapiens’’) is the only living being with the power of speech. The appearance of language on our planet is as recent as the appearance of man himself. Labor and language are distinctive and exclusive marks of human being. Without them the growth and progress of human society is unthinkable. Human speech differs greatly from the signal-like actions of animals, even of those which use the voice. Dogs, for instance, make only two or three kinds of noise – say barking, growling and whining. In human speech different sound combinations have different meanings. Primitive people had a few hundred words at the most. Today
highly cultured nations have more than seven hundred thousand words in their dictionaries. This means that now people can communicate by words much better than they did it in the remote past. The rapid growth of the vocabulary of modern language is due to the development of science and technology. But spoken languages were easy to forget; so people invented writing to record them. Writing is a way of recording language by means of visible marks. The first form of writing was picture writing. Symbols representing the sounds of a language appeared much later. The art of writing made possible to fix thoughts and store knowledge, and to pass them on from one generation to another. Mankind speaks many languages. A group of people who use the same system of speech signals is a speech community. Speech-communities differ greatly in size. An American Indian tribe of only a few hundred persons speaks languages of its own. On the other hand, there are some speech communities that are very large. English has several hundred million native speakers. For them English is their mother tongue. Millions of people with some other native language learn English for business, professional or political purposes. For them English is not their mother tongue but a foreign language. Ukrainian, Russian, French, German, Chinese and some other languages also have vast numbers of speakers. There are people who know three, four, five or six languages. They are polyglots. They study languages because knowledge of languages is their specialty or hobby. For modern engineer and research worker it is absolutely necessary to have practical command of foreign languages. A scientist who can read the literature of his field in several languages has a much better grasp


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